Over the past few decades, diverse social groups in India have been politicised and mobilised for electoral purposes on the basis of social cleavages, rather than on the basis of common economic interests, ideology or leadership. Almost all such social groups are spatially confined to a particular state or sub-region, following the reorganisation of states in India on a linguistic/ethnic basis,resulting in the rise of many state and sub-state parties. In effect, today India’s states are now important political units, and critical to the understanding of emergent ‘national’ politics.
How India Votes studies almost every state in India to develop a theoretical framework that will analyse and trace the processes of transition and reconfiguration in the electoral landscape. It answers the questions: What message do the states hold for parliamentary elections? How do the people, who belong to a state, respond to national and state leadership?
Drawing from the CSDS-Lokniti National Election Study 2014 data, the essays in the volume study demographic composition and the nature of socio-political cleavages and linkages; analyse the electoral outcomes of major state elections of the past decade and the influence of trends, alliances, seat adjustments, candidate selection and campaigns; study the impact of assembly and local elections held in the state, both in terms of electoral verdict and behaviour; and explore the developments that have taken place since the 2014 elections.
With its focus on the 2014 elections and state politics, this book will be useful for students of political science, psephology and sociology. It will also help the reader anticipate the issues that are likely to dominate the 2019 elections.
1. Studying Elections and Electoral Politics in the Indian States: An Introduction
PART I: NATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
2. The Implications of the 2014 Elections: Is BJP the New Congress?
Rahul Verma and Sanjay Kumar
3. The Religious Fault Line in the 2014 Election
Shreyas Sardesai and Pranav Gupta
4. The Indian National Congress: Coping with Challenges of Deepening Democracy, Federalism and Neoliberal Capitalism
5. Party Types and Electoral Performance across States, 1980–2016
PART II: NORTHERN STATES
6. Regional Divide on Communal Lines: Parliamentary Election 2014 in Jammu and Kashmir
Aijaz Ashraf Wani
7. The 2014 Lok Sabha Elections in Punjab: Explaining the Success of Aam Aadmi Party
8. Electoral Support Base of BJP in Haryana: Continuity and Change
9. Political Developments in Uttarakhand: BJP’s Rise in the 2014 Lok Sabha Elections
10. Himachal Pradesh Lok Sabha Elections 2014: BJP Rides High on ‘Modi Wave’
Ramesh K. Chauhan
11. Shifting Interface of Development and Identity: Delineating the Trajectory of Electoral Politics in Uttar Pradesh
12. Rajasthan: Tussle between Bipolirity and Single-party Dominance
Sanjay Lodha and Nidhi Jain
PART III: CENTRAL STATES/‘BRIDGE’ STATES
13. Madhya Pradesh: An Analysis of BJP’s Success in the 2014 Lok Sabha Elections
Yatindra Singh Sisodia
14. Chhattisgarh: A Repetition of BJP’s Performance in 2014
15. Re-evaluating Maratha Politics in Maharashtra: 2014 Assembly Elections and After
16. Gujarat: Modi Wave Pushes Congress to the Brinks in 2014
PART IV: EASTERN STATES
17. Chronicle of Janata Parivar Foretold: Rashtriya Janata Dal and Janata Dal (United) in Bihar
18. The 2014 Lok Sabha Electoral Outcome in West Bengal: Continuity and Change
PART V: SOUTHERN STATES
19. Karnataka: Emerging Patterns in National and State-level Elections
Sandeep Shastri and Veena Devi
20. 2014 Lok Sabha Mandate in Kerala: Signs of Deviation
Balu Sunil Raj
21. Lok Sabha Election 2014 in Andhra Pradesh: End of Congress Dominance and Emergence of Multipolarity
PART VI: NORTHEASTERN STATES
22. Diversity in Voting Pattern in Northeast India
R. K. Satapathy
23. Shifting Social Base: Explaining the Rise of BJP in Assam
PART VII: METHOD
24. Method Note: National Election Study 2014
Rahul Verma and Shreyas Sardesai
Notes on Contributors
Ashutosh Kumar is Professor, Department of Political Science, Panjab University, Chandigarh.
Yatindra Singh Sisodia is Professor and Director, M. P. Institute of Social Science Research, Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh.