Compiler Design
Manoj B Chandak and Khushboo P Khurana
180 x 240 mm
Year of Publishing
Territorial Rights
Universities Press

The compiler is a vital component in the programming process that translates high-level language to machine code. This comprehensive guide to compiler design begins by introducing students to the compiler and its functions. It then explains in detail each phase of compiler design – lexical, syntax and semantic analysis, code generation and optimisation. It clarifies important internal processes such as storage management, the symbol table and parallel compiling. It also describes various error handling techniques and provides an overview of the open-source compiler construction tools currently available.

Salient Features

  • Contains more than 170 figures to complement the text
  • Includes numerous programming examples to further elucidate the concepts
  • Provides comprehensive end-of-chapter exercises – fill in the blank and true or false questions, as well as practice and programming questions
  • Includes a separate chapter on important GATE examination questions, along with their solutions

Manoj B Chandak is Professor and Head of the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering and Management, in Nagpur, Maharashtra. He has more than 25 years of teaching experience and has published more than 100 papers in national and international journals. He also guides PhD and PG research scholars.

Khushboo P Khurana is Assistant Professor at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering and Management, in Nagpur, Maharashtra. She is an M.Tech gold medalist and teaches compiler design at undergraduate level.


1. Introduction to Compilers

1.1 Introduction
1.2 History of Compiler
1.2.1 C Compiler
1.2.2 Java Compiler
1.3 Language Processing System
1.3.1 Preprocessor
1.3.2 Assembler
1.3.3 Linker
1.3.4 Loader
1.4 Interpreter and Compiler
1.4.1 Interpreter
1.4.2 Compiler
1.4.3 Interpreter vs Compiler
1.5 Phases of Compiler
1.5.1 Lexical Analysis
1.5.2 Syntax Analysis
1.5.3 Semantic Analysis
1.5.4 Intermediate Code Generation
1.5.5 Code Optimisation
1.5.6 Code Generation
1.5.7 Symbol Table and Error Handling
1.6 Overview of Compiler Design
1.6.1 Pass and Phase
1.7 Application of Techniques Used in Compiler Design
1.8 Tombstone Diagram
1.9 Cross-compiler and Bootstrapping
1.10 Relating Compilation Phases with Formal Systems
1.11 Compiler Construction Tools
Review Questions
Practice Questions

2. Lexical Analysis

2.1 Lexical Analysis and Tokens
2.2 Input Buffering
2.2.1 Two-buffer Input Scheme Using Buffer Pair
2.3 Separation of Lexical Analysis and Syntax Analysis
2.4 Specification of Tokens
2.5 Tokens, Patterns and Lexemes
2.6 Attributes for Tokens
2.7 Lexical Analyser and Symbol Table
2.8 Regular Expression
2.9 Transition Diagram
2.10 Recognition of Tokens
2.11 Lexical Errors
2.12 NFA and DFA for Lexical Analysis
2.12.1 Combining NFAs of Different Patterns into a Single NFA
2.13 Regular Expression to NFA
2.14 NFA to DFA Conversion
2.15 Regular Expression to DFA
2.15.1 Direct Method for Conversion of RE to DFA
2.16 DFA Minimisation
Review Questions
Practice Questions
Programming Questions

3. Syntax Analysis

3.1 Introduction to Syntax Analysis
3.2 Types of Grammars
3.3 Context-free Grammar
3.4 Derivation
3.5 Ambiguous Grammar
3.6 Top-down Parsing
3.6.1 Non-predictive Parsing
3.6.2 Predictive Top-down Parsing
3.7 LL(1) – Predictive Top-down Parser
3.8 Bottom-up Parsing
3.8.1 Handle and Viable Prefix
3.8.2 Shift-reduce Parsers
3.9 Simple LR Parser (SLR)
3.10 Canonical LR Parser (CLR)
3.11 LALR Parser
3.12 Ambiguous Grammars in LR Parsing
3.13 Parser Conflicts
3.14 Handling Ambiguous Grammars in LALR Parser
3.15 Selection of Parsing Algorithm
3.16 Comparison of LR Parsers
3.17 Applications of the LR Parser
3.18 LR Parser in Natural Language Processing
Review Questions
Practice Questions
Programming Questions

4. Syntax-directed Translation and Semantic Analysis

4.1 Introduction to Semantic Analysis and Type Checking
4.2 Attributes and Specification of Semantic Rules
4.3 Syntax-directed Definition
4.4 Syntax-directed Translation Scheme
4.5 Dependency Graph
4.6 Methods to Calculate Semantic Rules
4.7 Evaluation Order of Semantic Rules
4.8 Syntax Trees
4.9 Directed Acyclic Graph Construction
4.10 Type and Type Checking
4.10.1 Basic Types and Constructed Types
4.10.2 Type System and Type Checker
4.10.3 Type Expressions
4.10.4 Operator and Function Overloading
4.10.5 Static and Dynamic Typing
4.10.6 Encoding of Type Expressions
4.11 A Simple Type Checking System
4.12 Type Conversion
4.12.1 Coercion
4.13 Type Equivalence
Review Questions
Practice Questions
Programming Questions

5. Intermediate Code Generation Using Syntax-directed Translations

5.1 Introduction to Intermediate Code Generation
5.2 Intermediate Code Representation
5.3 Syntax-directed Translation into Three-address Code – Principle
5.4 Syntax-directed Translation of Assignment Statement into Three-address Code
5.4.1 Assignment Statement
5.5 Syntax-directed Translation to TAC for Boolean Expressions
5.5.1 Method 1: Numerical Representation
5.5.2 Method 2: Short Circuit Code
5.6 Syntax-directed Translation into TAC for Programming Language Control Structures
Using Backpatching
5.6.1 If-then Construct
5.6.2 If-then-else Construct
5.6.3 While Loop
5.6.4 Do-while Loop
5.6.5 For Loop
5.6.6 Repeat-Until
5.7 Syntax-directed Translation of Arrays to TAC
5.8 Syntax-directed Translation to TAC for the Switch-Case Statement
5.9 Syntax-directed Translation to TAC for Procedures
5.10 Syntax-directed Translation to TAC for Declarations
Review Questions
Practice Questions

6. Code Optimisation

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Machine-independent Optimisation
6.2.1 Common Sub-expression Elimination
6.2.2 Algebraic Simplification and Strength Reduction
6.2.3 Dead Code Elimination
6.2.4 Copy Propagation
6.2.5 Constant Propagation
6.2.6 Constant Folding
6.2.7 Function Inlining and Cloning
6.2.8 Loop Optimisation
6.3 Machine-dependent Optimisation
6.3.1 Peephole Optimisation
Review Questions
Practice Questions
Programming Questions

7. Code Generation

7.1 Introduction to Code Generation
7.2 Problems in Code Generator Design
7.3 Target Machine
7.4 Instruction Cost
7.5 Simple Code Generation
7.5.1 Code Generation for a Three-address Statement of the form X = Y op Z
7.5.2 Reordering of Statements for Improved Cost of Generated Code
7.5.3 Code Generation for a Three-address Statement of the Form X = Y
7.5.4 Generating Code for Array Assignment and Pointer
7.6 Code Generation Using DAG
7.6.1 Heuristic for Finding the Optimal Order of Nodes in DAG
7.6.2 Labelling Algorithm
7.6.3 Code Generation From a Labelled Tree
7.7 Register Allocation
7.7.1 Global Register Allocation
7.7.2 Register Assignment for an Outer Loop
7.7.3 Register Allocation by Graph Colouring
7.8 Code Generation by Dynamic Programming
Review Questions
Practice Questions
Programming Questions

8. Storage Management and Symbol Table

8.1 Introduction to the Run-time Environment
8.2 Storage Organisation
8.3 Activation of Procedures
8.3.1 Activation Tree
8.3.2 Control Stack
8.3.3 Activation Record
8.4 Scope of Declaration
8.5 Storage Allocation Strategies
8.5.1 Static Storage Allocation
8.5.2 Stack Storage Allocation
8.5.3 Heap Storage Allocation
8.6 Garbage Collection
8.7 Parameter Passing
8.8 Symbol Table
8.9 Data Structure for Symbol Table
8.9.1 Linear List
8.9.2 Search Tree: Binary Search Tree
8.9.3 Hash Table
8.10 Scope of Information in Symbol Table
Review Questions
Practice Questions
Programming Questions

9. Error Handling

9.1 Introduction to Error Generation and Error Handling
9.2 Error Handling in Each Phase of Compilation
9.3 Error Handling in Lexical Analysis Phase
9.4 Error Handling in Syntax Analysis Phase
9.4.1 Error Recovery in Predictive LL Parser
9.4.2 Errors in Shift-Reduce Parsers (LR Parser)
9.5 Error Handling in Semantic Analysis Phase
Review Questions
Practice Questions
Programming Questions

10. Compiler Construction Tools

10.1 Introduction to Open Source Compiler Construction Tools
10.2 Java Formal Languages and Automata Package (JFLAP)
10.3 Scanner Generator: Lex
10.3.1 Lex Source File
10.3.2 Lex Regular Expressions
10.3.3 Ambiguous Source Rules
10.4 Parser Generator: Yet Another Compiler-Compiler (Yacc)
10.5 JFlex and CUP
10.6 ANTLR
10.7 Other Tools and Techniques
Programming Questions

11. Functional Languages

11.1 Introduction to Functional Languages
11.2 Characteristics of Functional Languages
11.3 Concepts in Functional Languages
11.3.1 First Class Functions
11.3.2 Pure Functions
11.3.3 Higher-order Functions
11.3.4 Closure
11.3.5 Currying
11.3.6 Lazy Evaluation
11.3.7 Recursion
11.4 Introduction to Lambda Notation/?-calculus
11.4.1 Free and Bound Variables
11.4.2 Substitution
11.4.3 Arithmetic Computations
11.4.4 Recursion
11.5 Basic Compilation
11.6 Polymorphic Type Checking
11.7 Desugaring
Review Questions

12. Parallel Compilers and Scheduling

12.1 Parallel Programming Concepts
12.2 Processes and Threads
12.3 Shared Memory and Message Passing
12.4 NVCC for Parallel Compilation
12.5 Dependency
12.6 Iteration Spaces
12.7 Affine Array Indexes
Review Questions

13. Programs on Compiler Design

13.1 Regular Expressions in Python
13.2 Programs for Different Phases of the Compiler
Practice Questions

14. Solved Gate Questions

Lexical Analysis
Code Generation and Optimisation
Memory Allocation

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