The Languages of Meghalaya, Volume 19, Part 2 - People's Linguistic Survey of India (PLSI)
G. N. Devy (Chief Editor) and Esther Syiem(Ed.)
180 x 240 mm
Year of Publishing
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This nineteenth volume of the People’s Linguistic Survey of India attempts to document the languages of the State of Meghalaya, beginning at the grassroots and involving speakers from all walks of life, so as to bring to readers the linguistic and cultural heritage of the state. Apart from the dominant languages spoken in the state, Khasi, Pnar and Garo, the varieties of these languages too are described in great detail. Care has been taken to record the voices of the informants in the true nature of the survey, so that the volume is not a mere cataloguing of languages, but mirrors the spirit and world view of the speakers. For languages are an extension of people’s existence and being.

In the discussions about the languages, there is information about their contemporary status, while the sections on the main languages also contain information about their historical evolution and structural aspects. The linguistic maps included in the volume also give a general idea of areas where the main languages are spoken. It is hoped that this volume will not only engage the reader, but will also stand as testimony to a people’s search for their roots.
Chief Editor: PLSI 
G. N. Devy, taught at the Maharaja Sayajirao University, Baroda till 1996, before leaving to set up the Bhasha Research Centre in Baroda and the Adivasi academy at Tejgadh where he has since worked towards conserving and promoting the languages and culture of indigenous and nomadic communities. He has also been the recipient of many awards for his work in literature, tribal craft and language conservation. He was awarded the Padma Shri in 2014. He is the Chief Editor of the PLSI series.

Volume Editor
Esther Syiem is Professor and Head, Department of English NEHU, Shillong. A bilingual writer, fluent in both English and Khasi, she has published two volumes of poetry and a play in Khasi. She has done extensive work on the Khasis and has also published articles on Khasi folk literature and has a book on the oral discourse in the Khasi folk narrative. She has also been involved in translation projects, translating works from Khasi to English. 
The People’s Linguistic Survey of India                                                                      vii

The National Editorial Collective                                                                                 ix

List of Volumes                                                                                                            xiii

Acknowledgements                                                                                                     xvii

Foreword                                                                                                                      xix

A Nation Proud of Its Language Diversity: Chief Editor’s Introduction                   xxiii

Editorial                                                                                                                    xxxiii

Introduction to the Volume                                                                                      xxxvii

Contributors to the Volume                                                                                       xxxix

An Appeal to Readers                                                                                                   xli

A Note on the Scripts used in Meghalaya                                                                     xlv

The Process of Compilation of the People’s Linguistic Survey of India, 

Meghalaya                                                                                                                    xlix

List of Languages and their Varieties Covered in this Volume                                     liii

List of Abbreviations                                                                                                     liv


1. Standard Khasi                                                                                                           3

2. The Pnar Variety of Khasi in the Jaiñtia Hills                                                          51

3. The Nongtalang, Darrang and Umladang Varieties of the Southern Jaiñtia Hills    63

4. The Biate and Hadem Languages of the Eastern and Northern Jaiñtia Hills            77

5. The Lasa Ïapngar, Nongbri and Mnar Varieties of Ri-Bhoi                                     98

6. The Mikir, Tiwa and Marngar Languages of Ri-bhoi                                             117

7. The Nongkrem Variety of the Central Upland Region in East Khasi Hills             129

8. The Khadar Blang, Nongshken and Umñiuh-Tmar Varieties of the

Ri War (Valley Dwellers) in the Eastern Khasi Hills                                                  137

9. The Shella Variety of the Ri War (Valley Dwellers)

in the South-CentralKhasi Hills                                                                                   158

10. The Mawsynram, Phlangwanbroi, Warding, Mawpen Varieties –

Transition from the Hill to Valley Varieties in the South-Central Khasi Hills            168

11. The Mairang, Maram, Lyngngam and Langrin Varieties of the

Western Khasi Hills                                                                                                    186


12. Introduction to the Garo Language and its Varieties                                             227

13. The A·we/A·kawe Variety of the Northern Garo Hills                                         251

14. The Chisak Variety of the Eastern Garo Hills                                                       270

15. The Matabeng and Matchi Varieties of the Garo Hills                                          284

16. The A·beng Variety of the Western Garo Hills                                                     310

17. The Atong, Dual, Gara-Gan·ching, Chibok and Ruga Varieties

of the Southern Garo Hills                                                                                          322

Index                                                                                                                            381


Figure I Distribution of Indian languages

Figure II Language distribution data of Meghalaya

Figure III Meghalaya political

Figure IV Khasi and Garo inhabited areas

Figure 1.1 The Khasi and Jaiñtia Hills

Figure 13.1 A·we speaking areas in the Garo Hills

Figure 14.2 Chisak speaking areas in the East Garo Hills

Figure 15.1 Matabeng speaking villages

Figure 15.2 Matchi inhabited areas of the Garo Hills

Figure 16.1 A·beng speaking areas

Figure 17.1 Atong settlements in the Garo Hills

Figure 17.2 Baigonkona: The dual settlement

Figure 17.3 Gara-Gan·ching area in South Garo Hills

Figure 17.4 Chibok speaking areas

Figure 17.5 Ruga settlements in South Garo Hills

Release Date : 22-May-2014 Venue : State Central Library Shillong, Meghalaya
3-6-752 Himayatnagar, Hyderabad,
500 029 Telangana
Phone: (040) 27662849, 27662850
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