Powder Metallurgy: Science, Technology and Materials
Anish Upadhyaya, G S Upadhyaya
180 x 240 mm
Year of Publishing
Territorial Rights
Universities Press

The Series in Metallurgy and Materials Science was initiated during the Diamond Jubilee of the Indian Institute of Metals (IIM). In the last decade the progress in the study and development of metallurgy and materials science has been rapid and extensive, giving us a whole new array of materials, with a wide range of applications, and a variety of techniques for both processing and characterising them. This book is the first textbook in the series.

Since the 1920s modern powder metallurgy has been used to produce a wide range of structural Powder Metallurgy (PM) components, self-lubricating bearings and cutting tools. The conventional method involves the production of metal powders, and manufacture of useful objects from such powders by die compaction and sintering. Wrought products are also produced by this route. Powder injection moulding permits the production of stronger, more uniform and more complex PM parts. A detailed discussion of PM materials and products is given in the book.


  • Sintering has been elaborated in two chapters—Sintering theory and Sintering technology. 
  • Testing and Quality Control of PM Materials and Products, is not found in many PM books.
  • Techno-economics of PM processing are also described in detail.
  • Powder metallurgical aspects of both metallic and ceramic systems are treated equally.
  • Materials handling at various stages of processing
  • Pressureless powder shaping
  • Functionally graded materials
  • Powder Metallurgy material code
  • New approach
    - Pyrophoricity and toxicity in Chapter 3 
    - Nanostructured materials and the electronic theory of sintering in chapter 7 
  • For powder metallurgical engineers
    - Various kinds of actual testing and quality control methods in Chapter 11 
    - ceramics materials in Chapter 12 
    - Wide range of practically applied parts in Chapter 13

The book is based on the experience of teaching undergraduate and postgraduate engineering students over several years. It serves as a textbook (both for undergraduate and postgraduate courses in engineering) and also as a handy reference book for engineers in the PM industry. In order to aid and broaden the problem-solving capability of students, worked examples are included in each chapter. In the end of chapter exercises, a variety of questions and problems are included.

Dr Anish Upadhyaya, Associate Professor, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, IIT Kanpur, Kanpur, has been an advocate of powder metallurgical processing due to its high materials utilisation, near net-shaping and energy efficiency. He has done pioneering work in the area of microwave sintering of metallic systems and has been conferred several awards, including Metallurgist of the Year (2009) from Ministry of Steel, Government of India, and has has co-authored a book, Materials Science and Engineering. 

Dr GS Upadhyaya, Retired Professor, Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, IIT Kanpur, Kanpur, has made significant contributions to sintering science and technology through his research. He has published more than 300 original papers and authored/edited 14 books on sintered materials. He has trained a large number of students in powder metallurgy, who are now working in academia, research and industry. He is a materials consultant based in Varanasi, India.

Chapter 1. Introduction 1.1 Powder Production and Characterisation 1.2 Powder Treatment 1.3 Powder Compaction 1.4 Sintering 1.5 Full Density Processing 1.6 Secondary Treatments of P/M parts 1.7 Applications 1.8 Holistic View of P/M Science and Technology Questions and Problems Further Readings 

Chapter 2. Powder Production 2.1 Chemical Methods 2.2 Electrolytic Method 2.4 Evaporation Method 2.5 Mechanical Method Questions and Problems Further Readings 

Chapter 3. Powder Characterisation 3.1 Chemical Composition and Structure 3.2 Particle Size and Shape 3.3 Particle Surface Topography 3.4 Surface Area 3.5 Apparent and Tap Densities 3.6 Flow Rate 3.7 Compressibility 3.8 Green Strength 3.9 Pyrophorocity and Toxicity 3.10 Powder Production Methods and Characteristics Relations Questions and Problems Further Readings 

Chapter 4. Powder Treatment 4.1 Annealing and Diffusion Alloying 4.2 Powder Mixing / Milling 4.3 Granulation 4.4 Coating on Metal Powders 4.5 Powder Degassing Questions and Problems Further Readings

Chapter 5. Powder Compaction 5.1 Basic Aspects 5.2 Die Compaction 5.3 Warm Compaction 5.4 Wet Compaction 5.5.Cold Isostatic Compaction 5.6 Powder Roll Compaction 5.7 Powder Extrusion 5.8 Injection Moulding 5.9 Green Part Materials Handling Questions and Problems Further Readings

Chapter 6. Pressureless Powder Shaping 6.1 Slip Casting / Slurry Moulding 6.2 Tape Casting 6.3 Electrophoretic Deposition 6.4 Spray Deposition / Forming 6.5 Solid Preform Fabrication Questions and Problems Further Readings Chapter 7. Sintering Theory 7.1 Solid State Sintering 7.2 Activated Solid State Sintering 7.3 Liquid Phase Sintering 7.4 Activated Liquid Phase Sintering Questions and Problems Further Readings 

Chapter 8. Sintering Technology 8.1 Debinding of Powder Compacts 8.2 Loose Sintering 8.3 Sintering Furnaces 8.4 Sintering Zones 8.5 Rapid Sintering Processes 8.6 Sintering Atmosphere 8.7 Sintering Atmosphere Analysis and Control 8.8 Process Variables 8.9 Materials Variables 8.10 Dimensional Changes 8.11 Microstructural Changes 8.12 Infiltration 8.13 Sintered Parts Materials Handling Questions and Problems Further Readings 

Chapter 9. Full Density Consolidation 9.1 Dynamic Powder Compaction 9.2 Hot Pressing 9.3 Hot Isostatic Pressing 9.4 Powder Hot Extrusion 9.5 Powder Hot Forging 9.6 Powder Preform Rolling 9.7 Spark Sintering Questions and Problems Further Readings 

Chapter 10. Secondary Treatments 10.1 Sizing 10.2 Machining 10.3 Impregnation 10.4 Surface Engineering 10.5 Heat Treatment 10.6 Joining Questions and Problems Further Readings 

Chapter 11. Testing and Quality Control of P/M Materials and Products 11.1 Sampling 11.2 Density 11.3 Sintered Porosity and Pore Distribution 11.4 Structure of Sintered Materials 11.5 Differential Thermal Analysis 11.6 Thermal Expansion 11.7 Thermal Shock Resistance 11.8 Thermal Conductivity 11.9 Optical Properties 11.10 Hardness 11.11 Strength 11.12 Impact Test 11.13 Fracture Toughness 11.14 Fatigue Behaviour 11.15 Creep Behaviour 11.16 Fracture Behaviour 11.17 Wear Resistance 11.18 Electrical Resistivity 11.19 Magnetic Properties 11.20 Corrosion Resistance 11.21 Quality Control Aspects of P/M Parts Questions and Problems Further Readings 

Chapter 12. Metallic and Ceramic P/M Materials 12.1 Low Alloy Steels 12.2 High Alloy Steels 12.3 Copper Alloys 12.4 Aluminium Alloys 12.5 Silver Alloys 12.6 Nickel Alloys 12.7 Titanium Alloys 12.8 Refractory Metals and Alloys 12.9 Intermetallics 12.10 Ceramic Systems 12.11 Cermets 12.12 Ceramic –Ceramic Composites Questions and Problems Further Readings 

Chapter 13. P/M Applications 13.1 Structural Applications 13.2 Machine Tool Applications 13.3 Power Generation Applications 13.4 Filter Applications 13.5 Friction Applications 13.6 Electrical Applications 13.7 Magnetic Applications 13.8 Oxygen Sensor Applications 13.9 Thermal Management Applications 13.10 Bio-Implant Applications Questions and Problems Further Readings 

Chapter 14. Techno-economics of P/M Processing 14.1 Costs of Metal and Ceramic Powders 14.2 Economics of Metal Powder Production Methods 14.3 Economic Aspects of Sintered Parts 14.4 Energy Aspects of Sintering Process 14.5 Economic Aspects of Full Density Consolidation 14.6 Economic Aspects of Powder Injection Moulding 14.7 Economic Aspects of Secondary Treatments 14.8 Economic Aspects of Outsourcing Questions and Problems Further Readings

1. Review in International Journal of Powder Metallurgy, June 2011
2. Review in Powder Metallurgy Journal by Professor H. Danninger, May 2011
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