Pavement Design
R Srinivasa Kumar
180 x 240 mm
Year of Publishing
Territorial Rights
Universities Press

This comprehensive textbook on pavement engineering provides a clear and thorough understanding of the fundamental principles of pavement design. The book also includes the latest methods/techniques on pavement materials testing, design and evaluation and uses the latest code provisions and design methods of pavements recommended by the Indian Roads Congress (IRC) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), which makes it suitable even for an elective or a postgraduate programme in civil engineering. Included in the book are discussions on vehicle–pavement interaction,  investigations by falling weight deflectometer (FWD) and heavy vehicle simulator (HVS), and design aspects of low volume and rural roads, and  surface and subsurface drainage considerations for pavements. Innovative developments in pavement technology such as pre-stressed concrete pavements and the use of geotextiles in pavement engineering are also covered. Solved examples of varied types are included throughout the book and so are exercises at the end of all chapters, which readers will find well suited for reviewing the concepts learnt.

R Srinivasa Kumar, Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering at the University College of Engineering, Osmania University, Hyderabad, has a BE in civil engineering and ME and PhD degrees in transportation engineering. He was awarded the Indian Roads Congress Commendation Certificate for the best research paper published in the IRC Journal (2001–2002). He was a member of the State Technical Agency of Uttar Pradesh for the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) Rural Roads Project and has conducted various training programmes as a member of the Coordination Committee at the Department of the Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology, Benaras Hindu University (BHU) and Osmania University, Hyderabad. He has to his credit several publications in national and international journals.



1. Factors Affecting Pavement Design
1.1 Functions of Pavements
1.2 Types of Pavements
1.2.1 Flexible Pavements
1.2.2 Rigid Pavements
1.2.3 Composite Pavements
1.3 Variables Considered in Pavement Design
1.3.1 Material Characteristics
1.3.2 Traffic Volume
1.3.3 Factors Related to Axle and Wheel Loads
1.3.4 Concept of Equivalent Single Wheel Load (ESWL)
1.3.5 Effect of Moving and Transient Loads
1.3.6 Factors Related to Climatic and Surrounding Environment
1.4 Drainage Considerations
1.4.1 Surface Drainage System
1.4.2 Sub-surface Drainage System

2. Stresses in Pavements
2.1 Components of Vehicle Pavement Interaction (VPI)
2.1.1 Measurement of VPI based on Quarter Car Model
2.1.2 Measurement of VPI by Testing with
Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD)
2.1.3 VPI Related to Vehicle Components
2.1.4 VPI Related to Pavement Structural Components
2.2 Categorisation of Vehicle Pavement Interaction (VPI) Based on Loading
2.2.1 Parameter Interaction Related to VPI
2.3 Terminology
2.4 Experiments on Vibration Related to Vehicle-Pavement Interaction (VPI)
2.4.1 Structural Evaluation by Steady-State Vibratory Loading
2.4.2 Structural Evaluation by Spectral Analysis of
Surface Waves (SASW)Method
2.4.3 Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS)
2.5 Stress Influencing Factors in Flexible and Rigid Pavements
2.5.1 Factors Related to Traffic and Loading
2.6 Concluding Remarks

3. Stresses in Flexible Pavements
3.1 Engineering Properties of Bituminous Materials
3.1.1 Stiffness Modulus of Bitumen
3.1.2 Visco-elastic Properties of Bituminous Materials
3.2 Stress Analysis of Flexible Pavements
3.2.1 Boussinesq’s Theory (Single Layer Theory)
3.2.2 Burmister’s Theory
3.2.3 Linear Elastic Multi-Layered Pavement System

4. Stresses in Rigid Pavements
4.1 Analysis of Rigid Pavements
4.1.1 Stresses Produced by Wheel Load
4.1.2 Curling Stresses
4.1.3 Stresses Due to Frictional Forces
4.1.4 Critical Combined Stress Due to Warping and Load
4.2 Dowel Bars
4.3 Fribergs Analysis of Dowel Bars
4.3.1 Deflection of Dowel Bar across a Joint
4.3.2 Load Transfer across Transverse Joints
4.3.3 Effective Distance of Load Transfer
4.4 Effect of Dowel BarMisalignment

5. Material Characteristics
5.1 Particle Size Analysis of Soils
5.2 Soil Gradation
5.2.1 Well or dense graded
5.2.2 Gap or skip graded
5.2.3 Open graded
5.2.4 Poorly or uniformly graded
5.3 Moisture Content
5.4 Consistency Tests of Soil
5.4.1 Liquid Limit Test
5.4.2 Plastic Limit Test
5.5 Determination of Soil Compaction
5.5.1 Principles of Compaction Test Methods
5.5.2 Test Procedure
5.5.3 Degree of Compaction
5.6 Strength Determination of Soils
5.6.1 California Bearing Ratio (CBR) Test
5.6.2 Plate Load Test
5.7 Mineral Aggregates
5.7.1 Introduction
5.7.2 Sources of Mineral Aggregate
5.7.3 Water Absorption and Specific Gravity Tests
5.7.4 Shape Tests
5.7.5 Aggregate Crushing Test
5.7.6 Aggregate Impact Test
5.7.7 Los Angeles Abrasion Test
5.7.8 Proportioning of Mineral Aggregate
5.8 Cement binders
5.8.1 Introduction
5.8.2 Properties of Cement
5.9 Bituminous binders
5.9.1 Desirable Properties of Bitumen
5.9.2 Tests on Bituminous Materials
5.10 Other Binders
5.10.1 Bitumen Cutbacks
5.10.2 Bitumen Emulsions
5.10.3 Tar
5.10.4 Tar-Bitumen Mixture
5.10.5 Sulphur Modified Bitumen
5.10.6 Lime Modified Bitumen
5.10.7 Polymer Modified Bitumen
5.10.8 Rubber Modified Bitumen
5.11 Resilient Modulus
5.11.1 Resilient Modulus of Bituminous Mix
5.11.2 Stiffness Modulus and Fatigue Life of Bituminous Mix
5.12 Tests for Bituminous Mixes
5.12.1 Static Creep Test
5.12.2 Repeated Load Test
5.12.3 DynamicModulus Test
5.12.4 Empirical Test
5.12.5 Simulation Tests
5.12.6 Stiffness Modulus and Fatigue Life of Bituminous Mix
5.13 Permanent Deformation of Bituminous Pavement
5.13.1 Permanent Deformation Parameters
5.13.2 Material characterisation for Permanent Deformation of
Bituminous Mixes
5.14 Soil Stabilisation
5.14.1 Effects of Soil Stabilisation
5.14.2 Methods of Stabilisation of Pavement Layers
5.14.3 Mechanical Stabilisation
5.14.4 Soil-lime Stabilisation
5.14.5 Soil-cement Stabilisation
5.14.6 Soil-bitumen Stabilisation
5.15 Use of Geosynthetics

6. Design of Flexible Pavements
6.1 Overview on IRC Design Method of Flexible Pavements for
Highways (IRC:-2)
6.1.1 Salient features of the IRC:-2
6.1.2 Drainage Considerations
6.1.3 General Features
6.2 Overview on the Asphalt Institute Method of Thickness Design of
Asphalt Pavements for Highways and Streets
6.3 Overview on the Asphalt Institute Method of Thickness Design of
Asphalt Pavements for Highways and Streets

7. Design of Rigid Pavements
7.1 Types of Rigid Pavements
7.2 Pavement Joints
7.3 Design of Rigid Pavements
7.3.1 The Portland Cement Association (PCA)Method
7.3.2 The AASHTO Design Method of Rigid Pavement
7.4 Overview on Indian Roads Congress (IRC) Design Method of Plain
Jointed Rigid Pavements for Highways (IRC:-1)
7.5 Design of Dowel Bars
7.6 Design of Tie Bars
7.7 Reinforcement to Control Cracks
7.8 Introduction to Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement (CRCP)
7.9 Introduction to Precast/Pre-stresses Concrete Pavements (PPCP)
7.9.1 The Concept of Prestressed Precast Concrete Pavement

8. Pavement Design for Low Volume Roads
8.1 Flexible Pavements
8.2 Rigid Pavements

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