Pavement Evaluation and Maintenance Management System
R Srinivasa Kumar
180 x 240 mm
Year of Publishing
Territorial Rights
Universities Press

The role of properly timed and qualitatively controlled rehabilitation and maintenance measures in preserving a pavement’s surface quality and ensuring that the structure lasts in serviceable condition through its design life and beyond is well recognized. This book explores the methods of structural and functional evaluation of flexible and rigid pavements for gathering critical data on the condition of pavements to enable strategic decision making with regard to rehabilitation/maintenance measures under budgetary constraints. It provides detailed descriptions of the state-of-the-art equipment/ devices/techniques used in these evaluations for determining parameters of relevance such as road roughness, skid resistance and existing strength of pavements. Several solved examples are included in the book to give readers a hands-on approach on the various techniques of measurements and evaluation of pavement condition. The significance of a pavement management system in providing a systematic, efficient, consistent and cost-effective decision making mechanism for optimising the maintenance of road networks is explored in detail along with implementation aspects.

Some of the salient features of the book are:

  • Concise introduction to various contact and non-contact type equipment for pavement evaluation;  standards and models for assessing road roughness and frictional properties of pavements
  • Inclusion of labelled photographs of various models of equipment giving details of their components, mode of operation and output data
  • Categorisation of pavement distresses and pavement condition rating methods, providing an overview of methods of pavement condition assessment
  • Maintenance and rehabilitation measures mapped to the pavement condition
  • Structural evaluation of pavements using ground penetrating radar
Detailed introduction to pavement management system (PMS), which includes life cycle cost analysis, ranking of maintenance and rehabilitation  projects, various approaches to PMS, PMS software and PMS implementation

R Srinivasa Kumar is a faculty member in the Department of Civil Engineering, University College of Engineering, Osmania University, Hyderabad. He is the author of Textbook of Highway Engineering ( 2011), Pavement Design (2013) and Transportation Engineering: Railways, Airports, Docks and Harbours (2014) published by Universities Press.


0  Pavement Types and Their Functional Aspects  
0.1 Introduction
0.2 Functions of Pavement Structure
0.3 Type of Pavements
0.3.1 Flexible Pavement
0.3.2 Rigid Pavement
0.3.3 Composite Pavements
0.4 Design Factors in General
0.4.1 Distribution of Wheel Load on the Pavement
0.4.2 Equivalent Single Wheel Load (ESWL)
0.4.3 Sub-grade Strength
0.4.4 Pavement Material Characteristics
0.4.5 Other Factors
0.5 Exercises

1 Introduction to Pavement Evaluation  
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Purpose
1.3 Classification of Pavement Evaluation Methods
1.4 Performance Evaluation of Pavements
1.4.1 Functional Evaluation
1.4.2 Structural Evaluation
1.5 Economic Evaluation of Pavements
1.6 Pavement Maintenance Management System
1.6.1 Concept of Pavement Evaluation and Maintenance Management
1.7 Concluding Remarks
1.8 Exercises

2 Introduction to Functional  Evaluation of Pavements  
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Functional Evaluation
2.2.1 The Purpose of Functional Evaluation
2.3 Pavement Inventory
2.3.1 Issues Related to Data Collection
2.3.2 Sampling Data
2.3.3 Sample Interval
2.3.4 Referencing
2.3.5 Frequency of Sampling
2.3.6 Width between Wheel Paths
2.3.7 Traffic Management during Data Collection  
2.4 Types of Functional Evaluations
2.5 The Serviceability Concept
2.6 Exercises

3 Pavement Roughness Measurement Systems  
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Classification of Roughness Measuring Equipment
3.3 The International Road Roughness Experiment (IRRE)
3.4 The International Roughness Index (IRI)
3.4.1 Quarter-car Model
3.4.2 Ride Number (RN)
3.5 The World Bank Recommended Classification
3.6 Exercises  

 4 Contact Type Equipment (Part 1)  
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Static and Non-static Type Equipment
4.3 Rod and Level Survey
4.4 The Straightedge
4.5 Rolling Straightedge
4.6 TRL Beam Static Profilometer
4.7 CHLOE Profilometer
4.8 The California Profilograph and Models
4.8.1 Ames Profilograph
4.8.2 Profile Index from California Profilograms
4.10 The DipstickTM
4.11 The ROMDAS Z-250 Reference Profiler
4.12 The ARRB Walking Profilometer
4.13 SurPRO 2000 and SurPRO 3500
4.14 CS8800 Walking Profiler
4.15 Exercises  

 5. Contact-type Equipment (Part 2):  Response-type Road Roughness Measuring System (RTRRMS)  
5.1 Introduction
5.1.1 Advantages of RTRRM Systems
5.1.2 General Limitations of RTRRM Systems
5.2 Roughometers
5.3 The BPR Roughometer
5.4 The Portland Cement Association (PCA) Meter
5.5 The Mays Ride Meter
5.6 The TRL 5th Wheel Trailer-mounted Bump Integrator
5.6.1 Operating Principle of the Mechanical Model
5.6.2 Correlation Studies between Index Values BI and D-value of MERLIN
5.7 The miniROMDAS Bump Integrator
5.8 The NAASRA Roughness Meter  
5.9 The ARRB Roughometer III
5.10 Exercises
6 Introduction to Non-contact Type Profilers (Part 1)  
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Type-A Profilers (Without Inertial Transducer)
6.3 Type-B Profilers (With Inertial Transducer)
6.4 Factors Affecting Profile Measurement
6.5 Exercises  

7 Non-contact Profilers (Part 2): High-speed Profilers  
7.1 Introduction
7.2 The South Dakota Profiling System
7.3 The FHWA ProRut
7.4 The Dynatest Road Surface Profiler (RSP)
7.5 International Cybernetics Corporation (ICC) MDR Profiling System
7.6 ARRB Hawk{\its eye   2000 Digital Laser Profiler (DLP)  
7.7 SSI High Speed Profilers
7.7.1 Other Models of SSI
7.8 The ROMDAS Laser Profilometer
7.8.1 Visual Condition and Inventory Surveys by ROMDAS Keypad Rating Module
7.8.2 Rut Depth Surveys with ROMDAS Transverse Profile Logger
7.8.3 Rut Depth Surveys with ROMDAS Laser Rut Measurement System (LRMS)
7.8.4 ROMDAS Laser Crack Measurement System (LCMS)
7.8.5 ROMDAS DataView
7.9 Exercises  

8  Non-contact Profilers (Part 3):  Lightweight Profilers  
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Lightweight Inertial Surface Analyser, LISA
8.3 The Dynatest 6450 Lightweight ProfilometerÒ
8.4 Laser Mounted on a Club Car of Surface Systems and Instruments (SSI)
8.4.1 Other models of SSI Lightweight Profilers
8.5 ARRB Hawk{\its eye   1000 Digital Laser Profiler (DLP)
8.6 Exercises

9 Statistical Considerations  
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Statistical Acceptance for Minimum Number of   Calibration Runs
9.3 Development of Correlation or Conversion Equation
9.4 Concluding Remarks
9.5 Exercises

10 Introduction to Frictional Evaluation of Pavements
10.1 Introduction to Evaluation of Frictional Properties
10.2 Pavement Surface Friction
10.2.1 Friction Indices
10.2.2 Friction Number or Skid Number
10.3 Types of Frictions
Longitudinal friction
Lateral or side-force friction
10.4 Mechanisms of Friction between Tyre and Pavement
10.5 Factors Affecting Surface Friction/Skid Resistance
10.6 Exercises

11 Pavement Surface Texture
11.1 Types of Textures
11.2 Texture Measurement Methods
11.3 Static Methods
11.3.1 Sand Patch Test
11.3.2 Grease Patch Test
11.3.3 Outflow Meter (OFM)
11.3.4 Circular Texture Meter (CTM)
11.3.5 Photogrammetric Technique
11.3.6 Digital Image Processing
11.4 High-speed Methods
11.4.1 ROSANv Surface Texture Measuring System
11.5 Exercises

12 Friction Measurement Methods  (Part 1)
12.1 Skid Resistance/Friction Measurement Methods
12.2 Full-scale Measurement of Friction
12.2.1 Comparison between Variable-slip and Fixed-slip Modes
12.3 Spot Friction Measuring Equipment
12.3.1 TRL Portable Skid Resistance Tester
12.3.2 Polished Stone Value (PSV) Test
12.3.3 Dynamic Friction Tester (DFT)
12.3.4 The VTI Portable Friction Tester
12.3.5 The Micro GripTester
12.4 Exercises

13 Friction Measurement Methods  (Part 2)
13.1 Continuous Friction Measuring Equipment
13.2 Locked-wheel Friction Test Devices
13.2.1 Dynatest 1295 Pavement Friction Tester (PFT)
13.2.2 The ICC Pavement Skid Friction Test System
13.3 Side-force Friction Test Devices
13.3.1 The TRL SCRIM
13.3.2 Mu-Meter
13.4 Fixed-slip Friction Test Devices  
13.4.1 GripTester
13.4.2 Saab Friction Tester
13.4.3 The Swedish Skiddometer BV11
13.4.4 Dynatest 6875H Highway Slip Friction Tester
13.4.5 Dynatest 6875 Runway Friction Tester
13.5 Variable-slip Friction Test Devices
13.5.1 The IMAG Trailer
13.5.2 Norsemeter ROAR
13.6 Vehicle Braking Deceleration Rate Measurement
13.6.1 The Vericom Accelerometer
13.7 Stopping Distance Measurement
13.8 Exercises

14 Wet Pavement Friction Models
14.1 The Need for Harmonising Friction Measuring Devices
14.2 Applications/Benefits of Using IFI
14.3 The PIARC Experiment
14.4 The PIARC Friction Model
14.4.1 Harmonisation of Friction Measurement Devices
14.5 The Rado IFI Model
14.6 Comparison between the PIARC Model and Rado Model
14.7 Other Models
14.7.1 The European Friction Index (EFI)
14.7.2 The Canadian Runway Friction Index (CRFI)
14.7.3 The International Runway Friction Index (IRFI)
14.8 Concluding Remarks
14.9 Exercises

15 Pavement Friction Management System (PFMS)
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Concept of Pavement Friction Management
15.3 Pavement Friction Management System (PFMS)
15.3.1 Minimum Level of Friction Demand
15.3.2 Survey Methodology
15.3.3 Data Analysis as Recommended by NCHRP Project 01-43
15.3.4 Concluding Remarks on Friction Management
15.4 Exercises

16 Methodology for Design and  Maintenance of Pavement Friction  Courses
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Selection and Design of Friction Parameters
16.2.1 Selection of Friction Parameters
16.2.2 Design of Friction Coefficient
16.2.3 Prediction of Texture Parameter
16.3 Mineralogy and Properties of Aggregates
16.4 Laboratory Testing Program
16.4.1 Physical Characterisation
16.4.2 Mineralogical and Petrographic Properties
16.4.3 Mechanical Properties
16.4.4 Durability Properties
16.4.5 Gradation of Aggregates
16.5 Surface Texturing Practices
16.5.1 Techniques Applicable to PCC Pavements
16.5.2 Techniques Applicable to Asphalt Concrete (AC) Pavements
16.6 Exercises   

17 Distress Surveys and Maintenance Alternatives for Asphalt Concrete Pavement  
17.1 General Introduction to Distress Surveys
17.2 Distress Definition in General
17.3 The Significance of Distress Measurement
17.4 Categorisation of Distresses in Asphalt Pavement
17.5 Identification, Causes and Measurement of Distresses
17.5.1 Alligator or Crocodile or Fatigue Cracking
17.5.2 Longitudinal Cracking
17.5.3 Transverse Cracking
17.5.4 Block Cracking
17.5.5 Edge Cracking
17.5.6 Slippage Cracks
17.5.7 Delamination or Peeling
17.5.8   Edge Drop Off
17.5.9 Joint Cracking
17.5.10 Random Cracking
17.5.11 Deterioration of Patch Surface
17.5.12 Bleeding or Flushing
17.5.13 Polished Aggregate
17.5.14 Corrugations and Shoving
17.5.15 Upheaval or Frost Boil
17.5.16 Ageing
17.5.17 Rutting
17.5.18 Potholes
17.5.19 Ravelling
17.5.20 Stripping
17.6 Symbols for Distresses Observed in Asphalt Pavement
17.7 Maintenance and Rehabilitation Alternatives
17.8 Exercises

18 Distress Surveys and Maintenance  Alternatives for Portland Cement Concrete Pavement
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Categorisation of Distresses in Rigid Pavement
18.3 Identification, Causes and Measurement of Distresses
18.3.1 Longitudinal and Transverse Cracking
18.3.2 Meander Cracking
18.3.3 Corner Cracking/ Break
18.3.4 D-Cracking
18.3.5 Map Cracking
18.3.6 Shattered Slab
18.3.7 Punch-outs  
18.3.8 Deterioration of Patch Surface
18.3.9 Spalling
18.4 Pop-outs
18.4.1 Polishing and Wearing
18.4.2 Scaling
18.4.3 Shallow Reinforcing
18.4.4 Blowups
18.4.5 Faulting
18.4.6 Water Bleeding and Pumping
18.4.7 Frost Heave
18.4.8 Settling of Pavement
18.4.9 Elevated or Depressed Manhole and Inlet Cracks
18.4.10 Deformation/ Separation of Curb and Shoulder
18.4.11 Lane-to-Shoulder Drop-off
18.5 Symbols of Distresses Observed in Rigid Pavements
18.6 Maintenance and Rehabilitation Alternatives
18.7 Exercises

19 Structural Evaluation of Pavements  Using Benkelman Beam and Falling  Weight Deflectometer
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Purpose of Structural Evaluation of Pavements
19.3 Types of Structural Evaluation Methods
19.4 Methods of Structural Evaluation
19.4.1 Desirable Features of the Equipment
19.5 Structural Evaluation by Static Loading
19.5.1 Working Principle of the Benkelman Beam (BB)
19.5.2 Calibration of BB
19.5.3 Pavement Condition Survey
19.5.4 Method of Measurement of Rebound Surface Deflections
19.5.5 Calculation of Deflection Values
19.5.6 Correction for Temperature Variations
19.5.7 Correction for Seasonal Variations
19.5.8 Traffic Considerations
19.5.9 Delineation of Homogenous Sub-sections of the Road Stretch
19.5.10 Characteristic Deflection
19.5.11 Design of Overlay
19.5.12 Limitations of the BB Method
19.6 Structural Evaluation by Steady-state Vibratory Loading
19.7 Structural Evaluation by Impulse Loading
19.7.1 Working Principle of the Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD)
19.7.2 Working Principle of a Geophone
19.8 Models of Falling Weight Deflectometer  
19.9 Structural Evaluation of Flexible Pavement Using FWD
19.9.1 Deflection Bowl Shape Characteristics
19.10 Back-calculations of Layer Moduli from FWD Test Data
19.10.1 Historical Methods
19.10.2 Microcomputer Methods
19.10.3 Temperature Correction
19.10.4 Selection of Pavement Layer Moduli
19.11 An Example Problem of Back-calculation of Layer Moduli
19.12 Uses of Back-calculated Pavement Layer Moduli
19.13 Structural Evaluation of Rigid Pavement Using FWD
19.13.1 Back-calculation of Rigid Pavement Material Response Parameters
19.13.2 Load Transfer across a Crack or Transverse Joint
19.13.3 Load Transfer Analysis
19.14 Exercises

20 Structural Evaluation of Unbound  Granular and Sub-grade Layers Using  Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP)
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Development of the Dynamic Cone Penetrometer Test (DCPT)
20.3 The Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP)
20.3.1 Terminology Used for Indicating the DCP Test Value
20.4 Material Testing with DCP
20.4.1 Automated and Instrumented DCP
20.5 Determination of DCP Index (DCPI$_{\theta ^\circ   $) Value
20.6 Factors Affecting DCP Test Results
20.7 Correlation of the DCPIq° Value with Other Standard Tests Values
20.7.1 Relationships between DCPIq° and CBR Values
20.7.2 Relationships between DCPIq° and Back-calculated Sub-grade Modulus Values
20.7.3 Relationships between AASHTO Layer Coefficients and DCPI Values
20.7.4 Relationships between DCP and Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) of Lime Treated Sub-grade
20.7.5 Applications of DCP Test Data
20.8 Limitations of DCP  
20.9 Exercises

21 Structural Evaluation of Pavements  Using Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS)
21.1 Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS)
21.2 Uses of HVS
21.3 The HVS in Use
21.3.1 Mobility
21.3.2 Hydraulic Loading
21.3.3 Simulation of Environmental Influences
Road Surface Deflectometer (RSD)
21.4 Exercises

22 Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR):  An Effective NDT Tool for Pavement Evaluation
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Working Principle of GPR
22.2.1 Parameters Used for Structural Evaluation of Pavements by GPR Surveys
Types of GPR 
22.3 Advantages of GPR Testing
22.4 Limitations of GPR Technology
22.5 Review of Literature on Applications of GPR
22.5.1 On Bituminous/Unbound Pavement
22.5.2 Subsurface Explorations
22.5.3 Concrete Pavements
22.5.4 Quality Assurance/Quality Control
22.6 Other Applications
22.7 Cement Concrete Pavement and Its Characterisation by GPR Technique: A Case Study
22.7.1 Casting of Cement Concrete Slab Pavement
22.7.2 Interpretation of the Laboratory Tested GPR Data
22.7.3 Field Tests
22.8 Conclusions
22.8.1 Recommendations  
22.9 Exercises

23 Pavement Drainage Design
23.1 Introduction
23.2 Drainage Considerations
23.2.1 Surface Drainage System
23.2.2 Sub-surface Drainage System
23.3 Exercises

24 Pavement Condition Rating Methods
24.1 Introduction
24.2 Visual Distress Condition Surveys
24.3 The Need for Distress Condition Rating
24.4 Methods of Conducting Pavement Condition Surveys
24.4.1 Manual Pavement Condition Surveys
24.5 Pavement Condition Indices and Rating Methods
24.5.1 The Concept of Present Condition Index (PCI)
24.5.2 The ASTM Method of Determining PCITM
24.5.3 Present Serviceability Rating (PSR) and Present Serviceability Index (PSI)
24.5.4 Pavement Quality Index (PQI) of Mn/DOT
24.5.5 The Oregon DOT Method of Pavement Distress Reporting
24.6 Forensic Investigations on Pavement
24.7 Interpretation of a Condition Rating
24.8 Pavement Condition Audit
24.9 Concluding Remarks
24.10 Exercises

25 Pavement Maintenance Management System (PMS)  
25.1 Introduction
25.2 The Need for Pavement Maintenance
25.3 Types of Maintenance
25.4 Purposes of PMS
25.5 Uses of PMS
25.6 Basic Terminology of PMS
25.7 Pavement Preservation Program (PPP)
25.8 Pavement Performance (Deterioration) Curve/Model
25.9 Premature Failure of Pavement
25.10 Decision Trees
25.11 Benefits
25.12 Temporary Treatment Options
25.13 Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA)
25.13.1 Approaches of LCCA
25.13.2 Economic Indicators of LCCA
25.13.3 Basic Steps in LCCA
25.14 Introduction to Ranking of M&R Projects
25.14.1 Definition of Prioritisation or Ranking
25.14.2 Need for Prioritisation
25.14.3 Stages of Priority Ranking
25.14.4 Methods of Priority Ranking
25.14.5 A Review of Ranking of M&R Projects
25.15 The Basic Approaches of PMS
25.16 Components of PMS
25.16.1 Identification of Road Network to be Managed
25.16.2 Inventory Data
25.16.3 Collection of Traffic Data
25.16.4 Field Inspection
25.16.5 Analysis of Data
25.16.6 Planning and Budgeting
25.16.7 Feedback System on Maintenance Performance
25.16.8 Decision Making
25.17 PMS Project Development and Implementation
25.18 PMS Software Models
25.18.1 MicroPAVERTM : An Overview
25.18.2 MTC StreetSaverÒ and MobileRaterÒ: An Overview
25.18.3 RoadSoftÓ GIS: An Overview
25.18.4 Utah LTAP-TAMS: An Overview
25.18.5 Highway Development and Management System (HDM-4)
25.18.6 Other Software Tools
25.19 Concluding Remarks
25.20 Solved Example Problems
25.21 Exercises


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