Transportation Engineering: Railways, Airports, Docks and Harbours
R Srinivasa Kumar
180 x 240 mm
Year of Publishing
Territorial Rights
Universities Press

In a first course in transportation engineering at the undergraduate level, the various aspects of road transportation, particularly highway engineering, are generally covered in detail. This book extends the discussion to other critical components of the transportation system, namely railways, airways and waterways, by emphasizing the basic infrastructural components, principles of planning, functional design, operation and management of the infrastructure in each case. It dwells on the latest approaches/methodologies in the design and evaluation of railways, airports and docks & harbours, and includes a large number of illustrations, images and worked-out examples to enhance the understanding of the design elements and components of the system in a practical way.

Salient features of the book

It provides a comprehensive, yet concise coverage of the following areas, making it ideal for a one semester course in transportation engineering pertaining to railways, airport and harbours.
Railways: Details of Indian Railway routes; features of permanent way components; geometric design of railway tracks; functional aspects of points and crossings with solved examples on design of turnout components; signals used in Indian Railways, their aspect form; working principle of axle counter and track circuit; particulars of automatic signalling system; types of interlocking systems and their merits and demerits

Airports: Airport master plan and runway orientation; aircraft characteristics, design and orientation of runways using Wind Rose diagrams; FAA design standard for minimum wind coverage; classification of airports and estimation of design runway length (FAA and ICAO standards); standards for geometric components of  runway and taxiway system as per FAA, ICAI and CASA; description of instrument landing system (ILS), approach lighting system, VASI, precision approach path indicator lighting system and visual aids; air traffic control (ATC) with the terminal component facilities; design of runway pavements based on UFC, FAA, PCA, US Army and Air Force systems; ACN-PCN system of rating aerodrome pavements; airport pavement drainage system, failures-evaluation and the maintenance aspects

Docks & Harbours: Planning, layout, construction and maintenance of docks and harbours

R Srinivasa Kumar is a faculty member in the Department of Civil Engineering, University College of Engineering, Osmania University, Hyderabad. He is the author of Textbook of Highway Engineering (2011), Pavement Design (2013) and Pavement Evaluation and Maintenance Management System (2014) published by Universities Press.


1 Introduction to Railway Engineering
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Classification of Routes

2 Components of a Permanent Way
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Rails
2.2.1 Function of Rails
2.2.2 Types of Rails
2.2.3 Brand Mark on Rails
2.3 Coning of Wheels
2.4 Creep of Rails
2.4.1 Effects of Creep
2.4.2 Theories Related to Creep
2.4.3 Measurement of Creep
2.4.4 Correction of Creep
2.4.5 Measures to Reduce Creep
2.5 Rail Joints
2.6 Wear of Rails on Curves
2.7 Cutting of Rails on Curves
2.8 Bending of Rails on Curves
2.9 Welding of Rails
2.10 Sleepers
2.10.1 Functions of Sleepers
2.10.2 Types of Sleepers
2.10.3 Sleeper Density
2.10.4 Aging of Sleepers
2.11 Rail Fastenings
2.12 Ballast
2.12.1 Types of Ballast
2.12.2 Geometric Parameters of Ballast
2.13 Formation

3 Geometric Design of a Railway Track
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Gradients
3.3 Compensation of Grade on Horizontal Curves
3.4 Horizontal Curves
3.4.1 Extra Clearance on Curves for High Speed Routes
3.4.2 Cant and Related Terminology
3.4.3 Determination of Cant or Superelevation
3.4.4 Transition Curve
3.4.5 Safe Speed on Horizontal Railway Curves
3.4.6 Length of a Transition Curve
3.4.7 Elements of a Transition Curve
3.4.8 Length of Transition Connecting Two Circular Curves of a Compound Curve
3.4.9 Length of Transition Connecting Two Circular Curves of a Reverse Curve
3.5 Vertical Curves
3.5.1 Types of Vertical Curves

4 Points and Crossings of Railway Tracks
4.1 Points and Crossing (Turnouts)
4.2 Terminology
4.3 Essential Requirements of a Good Crossing
4.4 Types of Crossings
4.5 Design of Turnout Components

5 Signalling and Interlocking of Railway Tracks
5.1 Introduction to Signalling
5.2 Objectives of Signalling
5.3 Classification of Signals
5.4 Classification of Stations
5.5 Quadrant Aspect of a Semaphore Signal
5.5.1 Two Aspect Signalling (TAS)
5.5.2 Multiple Aspect Signalling (MAS)
5.6 Signalling Systems
5.6.1 Mechanical Signalling System
5.6.2 Electrical Signalling System
5.7 System for Controlling Train Movement
5.8 Interlocking
5.8.1 Fundamental Principles of Interlocking
5.8.2 Types of Interlocking
5.9 Modern Signalling Installations

6 Introduction to Airport Planning and Design
6.1 Introduction
6.2 The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
6.3 The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
6.4 Civil Aviation Safety Administration (CASA)
6.5 Airports Authority of India (AAI)
6.6 Airport Master Plan
6.7 Airport Site Selection
6.7.1 Concept of Zoning Laws
6.8 Terminology
6.9 Aircraft Characteristics Affecting Design of Airport
6.9.1 Size of Airplane/Aircraft
6.9.2 Length of Aircraft
6.9.3 Wing Span
6.9.4 Wheel Base
6.9.5 Gear Tread or Wheel Track or Landing Wheel Track or Landing Wheel Gear
6.9.6 Landing Gear Tread
6.9.7 Minimum Turning Radius
6.9.8 Weight of Aircraft or Maximum Structural Take-off Weight (MSTOW)
6.9.9 Combined Effect of Aircraft Movement
6.9.10 Landing Gear Tread versus Gross Weight
6.9.11 Ground Speed or Cruising Speed
6.9.12 Air Speed
6.9.13 Jet Blast
6.9.14 Surface Friction of Runway
6.9.15 Summary

7 Classification of Airports
7.1 Airports Categorisation
7.2 Categorisation of Airports by FAA
7.3 Airport Classification Based on Operational Characteristics
7.3.1 Classification of Airports by FAA
7.3.2 Classification of Aerodromes by ICAO
7.4 Concluding Remarks

8 Orientation of Runways
8.1 Introduction
8.1.1 Atmospheric Conditions Affecting Planning and Orientation of Runways
8.2 Configurations of Runways
8.2.1 Designation of Runways
8.3 Wind Rose Diagrams

9 Design of Runway Length
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Estimation of Design Runway Length by FAA (AC / 5-4B, 5)
9.3 Estimation of Design Runway Length by ICAO (Part 1, Doc 7, AN/ , 6)

10 Geometric Components of the Runway and Taxiway System
10.1 Basic Components of a Runway
10.2 Declared Distances Associated with a Runway (ICAO 6; CASA 2)
10.3 Geometric Parameters of Runway and Taxiway
10.3.1 Runway
10.3.2 Taxiway
10.4 Instrument Landing System (ILS)

11 Airport Visual Aids
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Runway Markings
11.3 Taxiway Markings
11.4 Airport Signs
11.5 Approach Lighting System (ALS)
11.6 Other Lighting Systems
12 Airport Terminal Area and Air Traffic Control System
12.1 Terminal Area
12.2 Components of a Terminal Building
12.3 Air Traffic Control (ATC)

13 Design of Runway Pavements
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Structural Functions of Pavements
13.3 Types of Pavements
13.3.1 Flexible Pavements
13.3.2 Rigid Pavements
13.3.3 Composite Pavements
13.4 Design Factors
13.4.1 Distribution of Aircraft Load on to the Pavement
13.4.2 Equivalent Single Wheel Load (ESWL)
13.4.3 Sub-grade Strength
13.4.4 Pavement Material Characteristics
13.4.5 Other Factors
13.5 Overview on Airport Pavement Design Methods
13.6 Design Methods for Flexible Pavements
13.6.1 Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) System or US Army Corps Methods (UFC, 1)
13.6.2 FAA Design Method (FAA AC / 0-6E on Airfield Pavement Design and Evaluation)
13.7 Design Methods for Rigid Pavements
13.7.1 Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) System Based on Westergaard’s Stress Model (UFC 1)
13.7.2 Portland Cement Association (PCA) Method
13.7.3 Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Method

14 ACN—PCN System of Rating Aerodrome Pavements
14.1 Introduction (ICAO 9)
14.2 Overview on Mathematical Models
14.3 Determination of ACN of an Aircraft
14.4 Uses of ACN—PCN Aerodrome Rating System
14.5 Overloading Operations

15 Airport Pavement Drainage Systems
15.1 Introduction
15.1.1 Influence of Moisture Fluctuations during Different Seasons
15.1.2 Frost Action
15.2 Drainage Considerations
15.3 Design Details of Surface Drainage System
15.3.1 Estimation of Design Run-off
15.3.2 Hydraulic Design
15.3.3 Types of Curb Channels and Gutter Channels
15.3.4 Design of Curb Channel or Gutter Channel
15.4 Design of Sub-surface Drainage System
15.4.1 Sources of Sub-surface Water
15.4.2 Estimation of Quantity of Sub-surface Water to be Drained-off
15.4.3 Estimation of Quantity of Sub-surface Water due to Infiltration (Qi)
15.4.4 Determination of Coefficient of Permeability
15.4.5 General Design Criteria on Drainage Layer
15.4.6 Edge Drain or Longitudinal Collector Drain or Draw Down Drain
15.4.7 Perforation Criteria of a Longitudinal Drain Pipe

16 Failures and Evaluation of Airport Pavements
16.1 Introdution
16.2 Airfield Pavement Failures
16.2.1 Categorisation of Distresses in Asphalt Concrete Pavement
16.2.2 Categorisation of Distresses in Cement Concrete Pavement
16.2.3 Identification, Causes and Measurement of Distresses
16.3 Technical Evaluation and Strengthening of Airfield Pavements
16.4 Structural Evaluation of Runway Pavements
16.4.1 Structural Evaluation of Runway/Taxiway Pavement by Testing with Heavy Weight Deflectometer (HWD)
16.5 Runway Pavement Condition Surveys
16.5.1 Concept of Pavement Condition Index (PCI)
16.6 Measurement of IRI Based on Quarter Car Model
16.7 Introduction to Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)
16.8 Frictional Evaluation of Runway Pavement Surface
16.8.1 Introduction to Pavement Surface Friction
16.8.2 Friction Indices
16.8.3 Types of friction
16.8.4 Skid Resistance/Friction Measurement Methods
16.9 Runway Surface Friction Models
16.9.1 Rad´o IFI Model
16.9.2 Canadian Runway Friction Index (CRFI)
16.9.3 International Runway Friction Index (IRFI)

17 Maintenance of Airport Pavements
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Airfield Pavements
17.2.1 Interpretation of a Condition Rating
17.2.2 Structural Overlay with Reference to HWD Test Results
17.2.3 Surface Texturing Practices to Improve Skid Resistance
17.3 Maintenance and Rehabilitation Alternatives for Flexible Pavements
17.4 Maintenance and Rehabilitation Alternatives for Rigid Pavements

18 Planning and Layout of Docks and Harbours
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Harbours
18.2.1 Harbour planning principles
18.2.2 Terminology
18.2.3 Layout of a harbour
18.2.4 Classification of harbours
18.3 Ports
18.3.1 Requirements of a Good Port
18.3.2 Classification of Ports
18.3.3 Port Terminals
18.4 Docks
18.4.1 Classification of Docks
18.5 Transit Sheds and Warehouses

19 Construction and Maintenance of Docks and Harbours
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Construction of Quay Walls
19.3 Construction of Breakwaters
19.4 Tides and the Tidal Data Analysis
19.4.1 Types of Tides
19.4.2 Tidal Theories
19.4.3 Tidal Data Analysis
19.4.4 Applications of Tidal Data Analysis
19.5 Dredging
19.6 Maintenance of Ports and Harbours
19.7 Navigational Aids
19.7.1 Short Range Navigational Aids
19.7.2 Long Range Navigational Aids


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