can result from necessity as well as opportunity,
entrepreneurs pursue goals beyond economic gains.’
is no gender differential in drivers of business expansion. The small scale
business does not inhibit women-owned micro enterprises from expanding.’
In Women Entrepreneurship in the Indian Middle Class, Unni,
Yadav, Naik and Dutta explore entrepreneurship using a gender and class lens
from multidisciplinary perspectives. They examine the evolution of the field
and uncover factors impacting women's participation in entrepreneurship.
Defining entrepreneurship broadly to include not just ‘new economic activity’
but operations of all economic enterprises, the authors attempt to understand:
What motivates women in India to operate enterprises ranging from small and
medium to large enterprises? What is the nature of occupations and entrepreneurship
within segments of the middle classes? What kind of opportunities do women
Using a novel macro and micro research approach, the authors propose an
enabling framework of women entrepreneurship ecosystem in India and highlight
the way forward.
The insights from this book will help policymakers formulate appropriate
‘nudge’ techniques to encourage productive entrepreneurship. This book is a
must-read for researchers and aspiring women entrepreneurs for grasping the
dynamics of this emerging area.
JEEMOL UNNI is Professor, Economics and Public Policy, Ahmedabad University, Ahmedabad, India.
VANITA YADAV is Fulbright Fellow (MIT) and Lecturer, Innovation and Entrepreneurship, School of Business and Law, Central Queensland University, Australia.
RAVIKIRAN NAIK is Assistant Professor, Economics, Department of Data Science, Christ (Deemed to be University), Lavasa Campus, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
SWATI DUTTA is Associate Fellow, Institute for Human Development, New Delhi, India.
List of Abbreviations
List of Tables and Figures
I. Management View of Women Entrepreneurship
II. Multidisciplinary View of Women Entrepreneurship
III. Entrepreneurship and the Middle Class in India: Emerging Evidence
IV. Low Return Entrepreneurship and Small Business: Do Behavioural Traits Matter?
V. Dualistic Structure of Industry and Growth of Firms: Do Institutions Matter?
VI. Attitudes and Perceptions of Youth towards Women Entrepreneurship
VII. Women Entrepreneurship: Going Forward