This book is intended primarily for BSc Honours and General students pursuing Physics in various Indian universities. It provides complete and comprehensive coverage of Nuclear and Particle Physics as specified by the new Choice-Based Credit System (CBCS) syllabus. Topics include the properties of nuclei, different nuclear models, radioactive decay, nuclear reactions, interaction of radiation with matter, nuclear astrophysics, particle physics and particle accelerators.

While there is strong emphasis on following an exam-oriented approach, equal importance has been given to ensure that students have a thorough grasp of the subject and are actively engaged in the learning process.

**Salient Features**

- Includes the fundamentals of many advanced topics (useful for undergraduates) such as intrinsic parity, parity violation in weak interaction, and non-relativistic and relativistic nuclear collisions
- Contains more than 180 illustrative examples with step-by-step solutions at the end of each topic for easy assimilation of the concepts learnt
- Incorporates different types of problems – solved, with hints, assignments to assess comprehension, plotting of graphs using GNUPLOT – that may help readers develop an overall understanding of the subject while preparing for university examinations
- Provides more than 270 review questions, including 100 MCQs, to help students excel in competitive examinations such as NET and GATE

Online resources are available at www.universitiespress.com/nuclearandparticlephysics

For Teachers: Solutions manual and chapter-wise PowerPoint slides

**Satadal Bhattacharyya** is an Associate Professor of Physics at the Scottish Church College, Kolkata, and has been teaching Nuclear Physics in the advanced undergraduate class of this college since 1996. A PhD in Theoretical Nuclear Physics, his main research interest is in many-particle systems, including the study of different statistical aspects of ultra-cold trapped bosons.

1. PROPERTIES OF NUCLEI

1.1 Constituents of the Nucleus

1.1.1 Electron–Proton Model of the Nucleus

1.1.2 Inconsistency with Uncertainty Principle

1.1.3 Inconsistency with Nuclear Spin

1.1.4 Inconsistency with Magnetic Moment

1.1.5 Neutron–Proton Model

1.2 Nuclear Size

1.2.1 Estimation from Alpha-Ray Scattering Experiment

1.2.2 Observation from Other Scattering Experiments

1.3 Atomic Mass

1.3.1 Mass Spectrometry

1.4 Density of the Nucleus

1.5 Binding Energy

1.5.1 Binding Energy (BE) Curve and Its Importance

1.5.2 Release of Energy in Fission and Fusion

1.5.3 Fall of BE Curve at Small and Large Values of A

1.5.4 Mass Defect and Packing Fraction

1.5.5 Nucleon Separation Energy

1.5.6 Abundance of Stable Nuclei

1.5.7 Coulomb Energy of the Nucleus

1.5.8 Coulomb Energy Difference of Mirror Nuclei and Charge Symmetry of Nuclear Force

1.6 Spin and Parity

1.7 Electric and Magnetic Moments

1.8 Properties of Nuclear Force

Summary

Review Questions and Problems

Hints/Answers to Selected Problems

2. NUCLEAR MODEL

2.1 Liquid-Drop Model of the Nucleus

2.1.1 Applicability of Liquid-Drop Model

2.2 Nuclear Shell Model

2.2.1 Shell Model in Atomic Case

2.2.2 Evidence for Nuclear Shell Model

2.2.3 Introduction to the Nuclear Shell Model

2.2.4 Predictions of the Shell Model

2.2.5 Drawbacks of the Shell Model

2.3 Nuclear Fermi Gas Model

Summary

Review Questions and Problems

Hints/Answers to Selected Problems

3.1 Radioactive Decay Equation

3.1.1 Half-Life and Mean Life

3.1.2 Radioactive Series

3.1.3 Branching

3.1.4 Production of Radioactive Element by Nuclear Bombardment

3.1.5 Successive Disintegration and Radioactive Equilibrium

3.1.6 Radioactive Dating

3.2 Alpha Decay

3.2.1 Energetics of Alpha Decay

3.2.2 Energy Released in Terms of BE

3.2.3 Range of Alpha Particles

3.2.4 Basic Experimental Results

3.2.5 Theory of Alpha Decay

3.2.6 Alpha-Ray Spectrum

3.3 Beta Decay

3.3.1 Beta Spectrum and the Neutrino Hypothesis

3.3.2 Difference between Neutrino and Antineutrino

3.3.3 Violation of Parity in Beta Decay

3.3.4 Energetics of Beta Decay

3.3.5 Selection Rules

3.4 Gamma Decay

3.4.1 Energetics of Gamma Decay

3.4.2 Selection Rule

3.4.3 Internal Conversion

Summary

Review Questions and Problems

Hints/Answers to Selected Problems

4. NUCLEAR REACTIONS

4.1 Nuclear Reactions and Conservation Laws

4.1.1 Representation

4.1.2 Types of Nuclear Reactions

4.1.3 Conserved Quantities

4.2 Energetics of Nuclear Reactions

4.2.1 Energetics in the Laboratory Frame

4.2.2 Energetics in the Centre-of-Mass Frame

4.2.3 Cross-section

4.2.4 Compound Nucleus

4.2.5 Discovery of Neutron

4.3 Fission

4.3.1 Mass Distribution of Fission Fragments

4.3.2 Energy Released in Fission

4.3.3 Spontaneous Fission

4.3.4 Bohr–Wheeler Theory of Nuclear Fission

4.3.5 Emission of Neutrons in Fission

4.3.6 Reaction at High Energy

4.3.7 Utilisation of Fission Energy

4.4 Fusion

4.4.1 Solar Fusion

Summary

Review Questions and Problems

Hints/Answers to Selected Problems

5. INTERACTION OF NUCLEAR RADIATION WITH MATTER

5.1 Energy Transfer in Elastic Collision

5.2 Interaction of Heavy Charged Particles with Matter

5.2.1 Bethe Formula for Stopping Power

5.3 Interaction of Electrons with Matter

5.4 Range of Charged Particles

5.4.1 Range of Alpha Particles: Bragg’s Experiment

5.5 Interaction of Photons with Matter

5.5.1 Photoelectric Effect

5.5.2 Compton Effect

5.5.3 Pair Production

5.5.4 Attenuation of Gamma Rays in Matter

5.6 Detection of Nuclear Radiation

5.6.1 Gas-filled Detector

5.6.2 Ionisation Chamber

5.6.3 Proportional Counter

5.6.4 Geiger–M¨ uller (GM) Counter

5.7 Scintillation Detector

Summary

Review Questions and Problems

Hints/Answers to Selected Problems

6. PARTICLE ACCELERATORS

6.1 Need for Higher Energy

6.2 Linear Accelerator (LINAC)

6.3 Cyclotron

6.3.1 Limitations of the Cyclotron

6.3.2 Magnetic Focussing

6.4 Phase Stability and the Principle of Synchrocyclotron

6.5 Betatron: Principle of Operation

Summary

Review Questions and Problems

Hints/Answers to Selected Problems

7. PARTICLE PHYSICS

7.1 Fundamental Interactions

7.2 Elementary Particles

7.2.1 Leptons

7.2.2 Hadrons

7.3 Conservation Laws

7.3.1 Basic Conservation Laws

7.3.2 Conservation of Lepton Number

7.3.3 Conservation of Baryon Number

7.3.4 Strangeness

7.3.5 Isospin

7.3.6 Violation of Conservation Laws

7.3.7 Charge Conjugation

7.4 The EightfoldWay and the Quark Model

7.4.1 The Eightfold Way

7.4.2 The Quark Model

Summary

Review Questions and Problems

Hints/Answers to Selected Problems

8. NUCLEAR ASTROPHYSICS

8.1 Expanding Universe

8.1.1 A Rough Estimation of the Age of the Universe

8.1.2 Application of Newtonian Mechanics

8.1.3 The Hot Big Bang

8.2 Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

8.2.1 Radiation and Expansion

8.3 First Few Seconds after the Big Bang

8.3.1 Primordial Nucleosynthesis

8.4 Stellar Nucleosynthesis

8.4.1 Fusion in Stars

8.4.2 Hydrogen Burning

8.4.3 Nucleosynthesis for A < 60

8.4.4 Nucleosynthesis for A > 60

Summary

Review Questions and Problems

Hints/Answers to Selected Problems

Appendix A: Penetration of Rectangular Barrier

Appendix B: Parity

Appendix C: List of Physical Constants

Bibliography

Index