The papers in this volume were presented at the 2008 Chotro Conference on Indigeneous Languages, Culture and Society, Jan 2008, Delhi. It forms Vol.I of a 2-volume collection. The papers in this collection analyse the history and contemporary situation of indigenous peoples from different parts of the world. The focus is on language and literary and cultural expression. The authors examine issues ranging from the loss of languages and literary/cultural traditions, representation of indigenous peoples by `mainstream’ society, deprivations faced by them – natural resources, education and civic facilities, and their history of colonization (including by the modern nation-state). But the papers also examine the creativity, knowledge systems and rich cultural traditions of indigenous peoples.